What is the contribution of Islamic civilization to literature? - geeoffs.gq

 

muslim contributions to literature

The Muslims contributed a lot to literature. The Qur'an, the last holy Book, is in itself a matchless book. The Muslims wrote many books on astrology, astronomy, Mathematics, Algebra, Chemistry. During the high medieval period, the Islamic world was at its cultural peak, supplying information and ideas to Europe, via Andalusia, Sicily and the Crusader kingdoms in the Levant. These included Latin translations of the Greek Classics and of Arabic texts in astronomy, mathematics, science, and geeoffs.gq contributions included technological and scientific innovations via the Silk Road. Other articles where Islamic literature is discussed: Islamic arts: Islamic literatures: It would be almost impossible to make an exhaustive survey of Islamic literatures. There are so many works, of which hundreds of thousands are available only in manuscript, that even a very large team of scholars could scarcely master a.


Islamic world contributions to Medieval Europe - Wikipedia


During the high medieval periodthe Islamic world was at its cultural peakmuslim contributions to literature information and ideas to Europevia AndalusiaSicily and the Crusader kingdoms in the Levant.

These included Latin translations of the Greek Classics and of Arabic texts in astronomymathematicsscienceand medicine. Other contributions included technological and scientific innovations via the Silk Roadincluding Chinese inventions such as paper and muslim contributions to literature. The Islamic world also influenced other aspects of medieval European culture, partly by original innovations made during the Islamic Golden Ageincluding various fields such as the artsagriculturealchemymusicpotteryetc.

Many Arabic loanwords in Western European languages, including Englishmostly via Old French, date from this period. Europe and the Islamic lands had multiple points of contact during the Middle Ages. The main points of transmission of Islamic knowledge to Europe lay in Sicily and in Spainparticularly in Toledo with Gerard muslim contributions to literature Cremonemuslim contributions to literature, following the conquest of the city by Spanish Christians in In Sicily, following the Islamic conquest of the island in and its reconquest by the Normans ina syncretistic Norman-Arab-Byzantine culture developed, exemplified by rulers such as King Roger IIwho had Islamic soldiers, poets and scientists at his court.

The Crusades also intensified exchanges between Europe and the Levantwith the Italian maritime republics taking a major role in these exchanges. In the Levant, in such cities as AntiochArab and Latin cultures intermixed intensively.

During the 11th and 12th centuries, many Christian scholars travelled to Muslim lands to learn sciences. Notable examples include Leonardo Fibonacci c. From the 11th to the 14th centuries, numerous European students attended Muslim centers of higher learning which the author calls "universities" to study medicinephilosophymuslim contributions to literature, mathematicscosmography and other subjects.

In the Middle Eastmany classical Greek textsespecially the works of Aristotlewere translated into Syriac during the 6th and 7th centuries by NestorianMelkite or Jacobite monks living in Palestineor by Greek exiles from Athens or Edessa who visited Islamic centres of higher learning. The Islamic world then muslim contributions to literature, translated, and developed many of these texts, especially in centers of learning such as Baghdadwhere a " House of Muslim contributions to literature " with thousands of manuscripts existed as early as These texts were in turn translated into Latin by scholars such as Michael Scot who made translations of Historia Animalium and On the Soul as well as of Averroes's commentaries [6] during the Middle Ages.

Later Latin translations of these texts originated in multiple places. Muslim contributions to literature, Spain with Gerard of Cremona 's Almagest and Sicily became the main points of transmission of knowledge from the Islamic world to Europe. The Jewish philosopher Moses MaimonidesMuslim sociologist-historian Ibn KhaldunCarthage citizen Constantine the African who translated Greek medical texts, and Al-Khwarizmi's collation of mathematical techniques were important figures of the Golden Age.

Avicennism and Averroism are terms for the revival of the Peripatetic school in medieval Europe due to the influence of Avicenna and Averroes, respectively. Avicenna was an important commentator on the works of Aristotlemodifying it with his own original thinking in some areas, notably logic. This was particularly the case in Pariswhere so-called Arabic culture was proscribed inthough the influence of his psychology and theory of knowledge upon William of Auvergne and Albertus Magnus have been noted, muslim contributions to literature.

The effects of Avicennism in were later submerged by the much more influential Averroismthe Aristotelianism of Averroes, one of the most influential Muslim philosophers in the West. Dante Aligheri argues along Averroist lines for a secularist theory of the state in De Monarchia. Al-Ghazali also had an important influence on medieval Christian philosopher along with Jewish thinkers like Maimonides.

George Makdisi has suggested that two particular aspects of Renaissance humanism have their roots in the medieval Islamic worldthe "art of dictationcalled in Latin, ars dictaminis ," and "the humanist attitude toward classical language ". He notes that dictation was a necessary part of Arabic scholarship where the vowel sounds need to be added correctly based on the spoken wordand argues that the medieval Italian use of the term "ars dictaminis" makes best sense in this context, muslim contributions to literature.

He also believes that the medieval humanist favouring of classical Latin over medieval Latin makes most sense in the context of a reaction to Arabic scholarship, with its study of the classical Arabic of the Koran in preference to medieval Arabic. During the Islamic Golden Age, certain advances were made in scientific fields, notably in mathematics and astronomy algebraspherical trigonometryand in chemistryetc.

Stefan of Pise translated into Latin around an Arab manual of medical theory, muslim contributions to literature. The method of algorism for performing arithmetic with Indian-Arabic numerals was developed by the Persian al-Khwarizmi in the 9th century, and introduced in Europe by Leonardo Fibonacci — Ibn al-Haytham Alhazen, — compiled treatises on optical sciences, which were used as references by Newton and Descartes, muslim contributions to literature.

Medical sciences were also highly developed in Islam as testified by the Crusaders, who relied on Arab doctors on numerous occasions. Contributing to the growth of European science was the major search by European muslim contributions to literature such as Gerard of Cremona for new learning. These scholars were interested in ancient Greek philosophical and scientific texts notably the Almagest which were not obtainable in Latin in Western Europe, but which had survived and been translated into Arabic in the Muslim world.

Gerard was said to have made his way to Toledo in Spain and learnt Arabic specifically because of his "love of the Almagest ". While there he took advantage of the "abundance of books in Arabic on every subject". These scholars translated many scientific and philosophical texts from Arabic into Latin. Western alchemy was directly dependent upon Arabic sources. The exact attribution of these works remains a matter of some controversy.

The translation of Al-Khwarizmi 's work greatly influenced mathematics in Europe. As Professor Victor J. There was also some awareness that much of plane and spherical trigonometry could be attributed to Islamic authors". This and other Arabic astronomical and mathematical works, such as those by al-Battani [22] and Muhammad al-Fazari 's Great Sindhind based on the Surya Siddhanta and the works of Brahmagupta.

Fibonacci presented the first complete European account of Arabic numerals and the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in his Liber Abaci Al-Jayyani 's The book of unknown arcs of a sphere a treatise on spherical trigonometry had a "strong influence on European mathematics". Much of the material was taken from the 12th-century work of Jabir ibn Aflah, as noted in the 16th century by Gerolamo Cardano.

A short verse used by Fulbert of Chartres — to help remember some of the brightest stars in the sky gives us the earliest known use of Arabic loanwords in a Latin text: [36] " Aldebaran stands out in Taurus, Menke and Rigel in Gemini, and Frons and bright Calbalazet in Leo.

Scorpio, you have Galbalagrab ; and you, Capricorn, Deneb. You, Batanalhautare alone enough for Pisces. Ibn al-Haytham Alhazen wrote the Book of Opticsin which he developed a theory of vision and light which built on the work of the Roman writer Ptolemy but which rejected Ptolemy's theory that light was emitted by the eyeinsisting instead that light rays entered the eyeand was the most significant advance in this field until Kepler.

In religionfor example, John Wycliffethe intellectual progenitor of the Protestant Reformationreferred to Alhazen in discussing the seven deadly sins in terms of the distortions in the seven types of mirrors analyzed in De aspectibus. The theory of motion developed by Avicenna from Aristotelian physics may have influenced Jean Buridan 's theory of impetus the ancestor of the inertia and momentum concepts. The magnetic compassa Chinese invention, muslim contributions to literature, is first mentioned in Arabic sources of c.

One of the most important medical works to be translated was Avicenna 's The Canon of Medicinewhich was translated into Latin and then disseminated in manuscript and printed form throughout Europe. It remained a standard medical textbook in Europe until the early modern period, and during the 15th and 16th centuries alone, The Canon of Medicine was published more than thirty-five times.

Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi wrote Kitab al-Tasrifan encyclopedia of medicine which was particularly famed for its section on surgery. It included descriptions and muslim contributions to literature of over surgical instruments, many of which he developed.

The surgery section was translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century, and used in European medical schools for centuries, muslim contributions to literature, still being reprinted in the s, muslim contributions to literature.

Various fruits and vegetables were introduced to Europe in this period via the Middle East and North Africa, some from as far as China muslim contributions to literature Indiaincluding the artichokespinachand aubergine.

Islamic decorative arts were highly valued imports to Europe throughout the Middle Ages. Largely because of accidents of survival, most surviving examples are those that were in the possession of the church. In the early period textiles were especially important, used for church vestments, shrouds, hangings and clothing for the elite. Islamic pottery of everyday quality was still preferred to European wares.

Because decoration was mostly ornamental, muslim contributions to literature, or small hunting scenes and the like, and inscriptions were not understood, Islamic objects did not offend Christian sensibilities.

The Arabic Kufic script was often imitated for decorative effect in the West during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, to produce what is known as pseudo-Kufic : "Imitations of Arabic in European art are often described as pseudo-Kufic, borrowing the term for an Arabic script that emphasizes straight and angular strokes, and is most commonly used in Islamic architectural decoration".

Pseudo-Kufic would be used as writing or as decorative elements in textiles, religious halos or frames. Many are visible in the paintings of Muslim contributions to literature. It seems that Westerners mistakenly associated 13th- and 14th-century Middle-Eastern scripts as being identical with the scripts current during Jesus 's time, and thus found natural to represent early Christians in association with them: [61] "In Renaissance art, pseudo-Kufic script was used to decorate the costumes of Old Testament heroes like David".

Carpets of Middle-Eastern origin, either from the Ottoman Empirethe Levant or the Mamluk state of Egypt or Northern Africawere a significant sign of wealth and luxury in Europe, as demonstrated by their frequent occurrence as important decorative features in paintings from the 13th century and continuing into the Baroque period.

Such carpets, together with Pseudo-Kufic script offer an interesting example of the integration of Eastern elements into European painting, most particularly those depicting religious subjects. A number of musical instruments used in European music were influenced by Arabic musical instruments, including the rebec an muslim contributions to literature of the violin from the rebab and the naker from naqareh [65] The oud is cited as one of several precursors to the modern guitar.

Some scholars believe that the troubadors may have had Arabian origins, with Magda Bogin stating that the Arab poetic and musical tradition was one of several influences on European "courtly love poetry". The scholars attempted to translate the lines in question and produced various different translations; the medievalist Istvan Frank contended that the lines were not Arabic at all, but instead the result of the rewriting of the original by a later scribe.

Beech states that there is only one documented battle that William fought in Spain, and it occurred towards the end of his life, muslim contributions to literature. However, Beech adds that William and his father did have Spanish individuals within their extended family, muslim contributions to literature, and that while there is no evidence he himself knew Arabic, he may have been friendly with some European Christians who could speak the language, muslim contributions to literature.

A number of technologies in the Islamic world were adopted in European medieval technology. In an influential paper, historian Andrew Watson suggested that there had been an Arab Agricultural Revolution between andwhich had diffused a large number of crops and technologies from Spain into medieval Europe, where farming was mostly restricted to wheat strains obtained much earlier via central Asia.

Watson listed eighteen crops, including sorghum from Africa, citrus fruits from China, and numerous crops from India such as mangos, rice, cotton and sugar cane, which were distributed throughout Islamic lands that, according to Watson, had previously not grown them. Watson argued that these introductions, along with an increased mechanization of agriculture, led to major changes in economy, population distribution, vegetation cover, agricultural production and income, population levels, urban growth, the distribution of the labour force, linked industries, cooking, diet and clothing in the Islamic world.

Also transmitted via Muslim influence, a silk industry flourished, flax was cultivated and linen exported, and esparto grass, which grew wild in the more arid parts, was collected and turned into various articles. Decker used literary and archaeological evidence to suggest that four of the listed crops i.

The production of sugar from sugar cane[81] water clockspulp and papersilkmuslim contributions to literature various advances in making perfumewere transferred from the Islamic world to medieval Europe. According to Watson, "The Islamic contribution was less in the invention of new devices than in the application on a much wider scale of devices which in pre-Islamic times had been used only over limited areas muslim contributions to literature to a limited extent.

The spinning wheel was invented in the Islamic world by It later spread to Muslim contributions to literature byand then spread from the Islamic world to Europe and India by the 13th century. It was a precursor to the spinning jennywhich was widely used during the Industrial Revolution. The spinning jenny was essentially an adaptation of muslim contributions to literature spinning wheel.

While the earliest coins were minted and widely circulated in Europe, and Ancient RomeIslamic coinage had some influence on Medieval European minting. The preferred specie for international transactions before the 13th century, in Europe as well as the Middle East and even India, were the gold coins struck by Byzantium and then Egypt.

It was not until after the 13th century that some Italian cities Florence and Genoa began to mint their own gold coins, but these were used to supplement rather than supplant the Middle Eastern coins already in circulation.

Dante was certainly aware of Muslim philosophy, naming Avicenna and Averroes last in his list of non-Christian philosophers in Limbo, alongside the great Greek and Latin philosophers. Muslim contributions to literature Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from Islamic contributions to Medieval Europe. Further information: Latin translations of the 12th century and Science in the medieval Islamic muslim contributions to literature. A page from Frederick Rosen's edition of Al-Khwarizmi 's Algebra alongside muslim contributions to literature corresponding English translation. See also: Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam. See also: Medicine in the medieval Islamic world. Further information: Arab Agricultural Revolution.

 

Muslim Contributions to Civilization

 

muslim contributions to literature

 

The Golden Age began to give Islamic art a category of its own, and as the Islamic Empire continued to grow, so did its creative side. In fact, if contributions were never made in these fields, the world would truly miss something incredible. Literature during the Golden Age was characterized by a variety of works, ranging from poetry to. Other articles where Islamic literature is discussed: Islamic arts: Islamic literatures: It would be almost impossible to make an exhaustive survey of Islamic literatures. There are so many works, of which hundreds of thousands are available only in manuscript, that even a very large team of scholars could scarcely master a. The Muslims contributed a lot to literature. The Qur'an, the last holy Book, is in itself a matchless book. The Muslims wrote many books on astrology, astronomy, Mathematics, Algebra, Chemistry.